Whether it’s on the job or at home, heat-related illness is preventable if you and those around you are cognizant of the risks. According to the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), heat exhaustion and heat stroke are the most serious heat-related illnesses. In the Northern Hemisphere, heat-related deaths typically occur between May and September. The CDC estimates that heat-related illnesses result in over 600 deaths per year just in the US.
Heat-Related Illness: Warning Signs and Symptoms
Symptoms can be subtle, so it’s important that employees pay attention to their own bodies as well as keep an eye on their co-workers and be on the lookout for signs and symptoms of heat exhaustion or heat stroke. As the body becomes unable to cool itself down, your body temperature will rise, which can damage the brain or other vital organs if it gets too high. In severe cases of heat stroke, this can lead to multi-organ system failure and death.
Here are key warning signs that someone may be suffering from heat exhaustion or heat stroke:
Heat Exhaustion Warning Signs
- Muscle cramping
- Nausea or vomiting
- Dizziness or fainting
If left untreated, heat exhaustion can progress to heat stroke, which is life-threatening.
Heat Stroke Warning Signs
- Body temperature greater than 103°F (39.4°C)
- Red, hot, and dry skin (no sweating)
- Rapid, strong pulse
- Throbbing headache
Since there are overlaps in the symptoms between heat exhaustion and heat stroke, it is imperative that employees understand that they should presume the worst-case scenario and seek help immediately, such as calling 911 (US and Canada) or 112 (Europe and Northern Asia).
Follow these steps while waiting for paramedics to arrive:
- Move the person out of the sun and into an air-conditioned building or car or into the shade
- Remove any unnecessary clothing
- Place the person on his or her side to expose as much skin surface to the air as possible
- Use ice packs and ice water to help lower their body temperature – place ice packs in each armpit, on the back of the person’s neck, below the palm of the hands, and behind the knees
- Watch for seizures, unconsciousness that lasts longer than a few seconds, and moderate to severe difficulty breathing – these can be signs that heatstroke is rapidly progressing
- Give the person fluids if they are alert and able to swallow. It’s recommended that you give 1-2 L (32-64 fl oz) over a 1 to 2-hour period of time to help with hydration. Remember, you may have to help the person drink so they do not accidentally choke.
- Do not give aspirin or acetaminophen to reduce the person’s body temperature – they do not have a fever. Giving these medications can exacerbate an already dangerous situation.
Take these proactive measures to minimize the risks of an employee developing heat exhaustion or heat stroke:
- Conduct job hazard/job safety assessments to determine the risk of employees developing heat-related illnesses. Don’t forget to assess jobs that are conducted indoors, since some buildings may not have air conditioning or adequate ventilation and can be warmer than the outside air temperature
- Conduct risk assessments to determine if work procedures need to be modified during days when temperatures are forecast to be above 90°F (32°C).
- Monitor the weather forecast for excessive heat watches and warnings as well as heat advisories and send out alerts to employees reminding them to take precautions while working outdoors or in buildings without air conditioning
- Conduct pre-job briefings to alert employees to weather conditions and the risks that this can present to them and their co-workers
- Train employees to recognize the signs and symptoms of heat-related illnesses, as well as precautions they can take, including staying hydrated and wearing light-weight, light-colored clothing
- Set up water stations throughout your site to help employees stay hydrated
Learn More About Managing Heat-Related Illness
Are you an employer who wants to protect your workers from heat-related illnesses? If so, you can monitor your employees’ exposure to heat by taking advantage of health and safety technology solutions. Cority’s Safety Management solutions have been designed to help safety professionals identify and minimize on the job hazards. Cority’s Risk Management and Job Hazard Analysis solutions are designed to eliminate risks while keeping employees safe during all seasons. Learn about our solutions here.